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Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, " The Study of Administration " in is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study".
Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy". A living democracy is "an environment that is changing, organic", imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science ", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
He argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less effectively by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, and the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods. The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants.
This includes "Legislative activities, taxation, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, and the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the management of public policy; executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and financial management; administrative law; public personnel management; professional ethics; and research methods.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Antiquity to the 19th century[ edit ] Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emperors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government. Prior to the 19th century, staffing of most public administrations was rife with nepotism, favouritism, and political patronage, which was often referred to as a " spoils system ".
Public administrators have long been the "eyes and ears" of rulers. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment. Consequently, the need for expert civil servants whose ability to read and write formed the basis for developing expertise in such necessary activities as legal record-keeping, paying and feeding armies and levying taxes.
As the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powers extended their hold over other continents and people, the need for a sophisticated public administration grew.
The field of management may well be said to have originated in ancient China,  including possibly the first highly centralized bureaucratic state, and the earliest by the second century BC example of an administration based on merit through testing.
Creel and other scholars find the influence of Chinese administration in Europe by the 12th century, for example, in Fredrick II 's promulgations, characterized as the "birth certificate of modern bureaucracy".
Creel writes that, in Shen Buhai, there are the "seeds of the civil service examination ", and that, if one wishes to exaggerate, it would "no doubt be possible to translate Shen Buhai's term Shu, or technique, as 'science'", and argue that he was the first political scientist, though Creel does "not care to go this far".
The universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic and social disciplines, with the goal of societal reform.
Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known professor of Cameralism. Thus, from a Western European perspective, Classic, Medieval, and Enlightenment-era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that has come to be called public administration.
Lorenz von Stein , an German professor from Vienna , is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world. In the time of Von Stein, public administration was considered a form of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive.
Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many preestablished disciplines such as sociology , political science , administrative law and public finance.
He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method.
Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke  to Thomas Jefferson. He first formally recognized public administration in an article entitled " The Study of Administration ". The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy".
The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration. By the s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson's solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced. These pretest questions are used to develop future versions of the exam. You can skip questions if you would like and come back Learn Management Fundamentals from University of Pennsylvania.
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It's really at the core of capitalism.
And that's why I point out that it was published in the same year as the American Declaration of Independence, because obviously America, the Founding Fathers, they wrote the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, that really talks about what it means to be a democratic country, what are the rights of its citizens.
But the United States, with its overall experience of an American, is at least as influenced by the work of Adam Smith, by this kind of foundational ideas of capitalism. And they just both happened to happen around the same time.
But this idea is not always that intuitive. Individual actors, by essentially pursuing their own self-interested ends might be doing more for society than than if any of them actually tried to promote the overall well-being of society. And I don't think that Adam Smith would say that it's always good for someone to act self-interested, or that it's never good for people to actually think about the implications of what they are doing in an aggregate sense, but he is saying that frequently..
Could lead to more innovation. Could lead to better investment. Could lead to more productivity. Could lead to more wealth, more, a larger pie for everyone. And now Economics is frequently..
Micro is that people, individual actors are acting out of their own self-interest. And the macro is that it might be good for the economy, or the nation as a whole. And so, now, modern economists tend to divide themselves into these two schools, or into these two subjects: microeconomics, which is the study of individual actors. And you have macro-economics, which is the study of the economy in aggregate. And you get it from the words.
Micro -- the prefix refers to very small things. Macro refers to the larger, to the bigger picture.
And so, micro-economics is essentially how actors.. And you hear the words scarce resources a lot when people talk about economics. And a scarce resource is one you don't have an infinite amount of. For example, love might not be a scarce resource.
You might have an infinite amount of love. But a resource that would be scarce is something like food, or water, or money, or time, or labor. These are all scarce resources. And so microeconomics is how do people decide where to put those scarce resource, how do they decide where to deploy them.
And how does that..