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Therefore, changes in fire behaviour driven by the addition of new Cretaceous fuel groups may have assisted the angiosperm expansion. Keywords: angiosperm evolution, Cretaceous, fire intensity, fire spread, wildfire Introduction The Cretaceous Period saw major diversification in land plants.
Previously, conifers gymnosperms and ferns pteridophytes dominated Earth's ecosystems until flowering plants angiosperms appear in the Early Cretaceous fossil record c. Most models and inverse proxy methods suggest a rise in the abundance of oxygen in the Cretaceous atmosphere e. Therefore, wildfires would be expected to have been more widespread in the Cretaceous, both according to evolutionary driven changes in fuel and enhancement of atmospheric oxygen.
To date, alterations in fire behaviour encompassing surface rate of spread, fireline intensity and the heat delivered per unit area have not yet been explored for any major evolutionary innovations in plants in the geological past. This hampers our ability to consider evolutionary changes driven by fire because these factors determine the likely type of damage that may occur following a fire, such as whether a surface fire may transition to a crown fire, or how much of a trees crown might be scorched by the heat from the fire's convective column.
This is important to understand for the Cretaceous because it determines the possible impact of changes to fire behaviour on gymnosperm forests, and therefore may provide clues as to how small stature plants were able to so rapidly outcompete tall gymnosperm trees to become the most dominant plant group in the world today. In the present study we explore the ability of key Cretaceous surface fuel groups to influence fire behaviour, and consider the feedback of superambient atmospheric oxygen on the projected Cretaceous fire behaviour.
We do this by undertaking flammability experiments in analogue Mesozoic fuels, the results of which are used to model Cretaceous surface fire behaviour. Thermal Properties of Thermosets. Low-Temperature Resin Systems.
Medium-Temperature Resin Systems. High-Temperature Resin Systems. Environmental and Chemical Effects. Chemical Susceptibility. Absorption and Transport.
Additive Effects. Thermal Degradation. Thermal Oxidative Degradation. Photo-oxidative Degradation. Environmental Corrosion. Chemical Corrosion.
Degradation Detection. Effect of Environment on Performance. Plasticization, Solvation and Swelling. Part Geometry.
Strength of Plastics. Cost Estimating Plastics Parts. Stucture, Properties, Processing, and Applications. Design with Plastics.
Mechanical Part Performance. Manufacturing Considerations. Design-Based Material Selection. Design and Selection of Plastics Processing Methods. Plastics Processing Methods. Injection Molding. Blow Molding. Rotational Molding.
Compression Molding and Transfer Molding. Composites Processing. Design Features and Process Considerations.
Other Plastics Design and Processing Considerations. Materials-Selection Methodology. Function and Properties Factors in Process Selection.
Establishing Functional Requirements. Polymer Degradation by Chemical Reaction. Surface Embrittlement. Temperature Effects. Fatigue Crack Initiation. Fatigue Crack Propagation. Factors Affecting Fatigue Performance of Polymers.
Fatigue Failure Mechanisms. Mechanisms of Fatigue Failure. Thermal Fatigue Failure. Mechanical Fatigue Failure. Friction and Wear Testing. Friction, Wear, and Lubrication.
Friction and Wear Test Methods.
Wear Failures of Plastics. Interfacial Wear. Cohesive Wear.
Glassy Thermoplastics. Semicrystalline Thermoplastics.
Summary and Case Study. Failure Examples. Fire Resistance of Polymeric Materials.
Overview of the Burning Process. Flammability Test Methods. Electrical Testing and Characterization. Electrical Tests. Electrical Properties of Plastics and Their Characterizations. Optical Testing and Characterization. Transmission and Haze. Refractive Index. Surface Irregularity and Contamination. Surface Gloss and Color. Ad Hoc Testing. Tensile Properties. Creep Data Analysis.
Dynamic Mechanical Properties. Impact Toughness. Hardness Tests. Fatigue Testing. Elastomers and Fibers. Creep, Stress Relaxation, and Yielding. Creep Failure. Stress Relaxation Failure. Yield Failure. Effect of Crystallinity. The Aging of Polymers.
Crazing and Fracture. General Polymeric Behavior.
Ductile-Brittle Transitions. Environmental Effects.