Our island: Earth. • Earth may seem enormous. - But it and its systems are finite and limited. - We can change the Earth and damage its systems. • Environment. [Matching item] Environment: the science behind the stories / Jay Withgott, Matt Laposata. [Matching item] Environment: the science behind the stories / Jay Withgott, Matthew Laposata. [Matching item] Environment: the science behind the stories / Jay H. Withgott, Scott R. Environment. The Science Behind the Stories. 5TH EDITION. Jay Withgott. Matthew Laposata. Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San.
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in this 6th edition of environment: the science behind the stories, we assess climate change, the stories (5th edition) pdf - note: this is the standalone book. related book pdf book environment the science behind the stories 2nd edition: y the last man book 3 deluxe edition - the hp lovecraft omnibus 2 dagon and. 1 Full file at compgarbullkunsbar.cf the-Stories-6th-Edition-by-Withgott 2) Nearly 50% of the land on our planet is.
In nursing, such concern about the environment has existed since the foundation of professional nursing in the second half of the nineteenth century.
It can found on the present days, in a humanized care, based on environmental control around the patient, which is seen as a being that is part of relationships and interactions with the environment in which this one can be found 3. It should be noted also that the ambience is just one of the devices for the development of humanized care, but it can be added, among such devices: hosting with risk rating, collegiate managers, training program in health and work, reference teams and matrix support, ambience projects, companion rights and open visit and the construction of collective monitoring and evaluation processes of humanization activities 4.
Thus, the goal of the nursing field is to provide assistance for patients in maintaining their vital capacity, satisfying their needs.
Therefore, Nightingale shows that nursing is a non-healing practice, in which the patient is placed in the best condition for the action of nature 1. In this perspective, the focus of nursing care is on environmental hygiene, the most basic concept and characteristic of her works.
In those, Nightingale lists the tasks that nurses must perform to assist sick individuals, and many of them are relevant even nowadays 5. The use of nursing theories is of great importance due to the practice foundation.
It provides the appreciation of the knowledge of the profession and its relation with the performance of the nurses. Therefore, it is important to make a critical analysis about the theory in focus, bearing in mind that carrying out a critical analysis study of a theory assists in ensuring the validity of such and its correct use, providing relevant information for its development.
Analysis or evaluation theory is the process of examining systematically a theory by using criteria that vary depending on the authors that propose methods of analysis, which are: examination of the origins of the theory, meaning, logic appropriateness, usefulness and possibilities of generalization and test 5. The primary purpose of the analysis of a theory is to determine its potential contribution to the scientific knowledge.
It also contributes by adding knowledge, to the perspective of practices, providing its greater solidification, and allowing the identification of faults and inconsistencies as for the use of the theory in practice 5 , 6.
In order to critically analyze a theory, many authors have proposed methods to conduct this process such as: Walker and Avant 6 , Meleis 7 and Johnson and Webber 8. The criteria of critical analysis of these last ones were used in this study to examine the Environmental Theory of Florence Nightingale 1.
Based on the critical model based on criteria that was proposed by Johnson and Webber 8 , it will be discussed in this article the following: significance, boundaries, language, concepts, propositions, variables, hypothesis and the influence of the theory in the practice of nursing.
Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the Environmental Theory by Florence Nightingale through the model proposed by Johnson and Webber. It was used as a primary source for the critical analysis of the Environmentalist Theory by Florence Nightingale, its most widespread work, the book "Notes on Nursing - what it is and what it is not" written in , translated into Portuguese in 1.
Secondary sources on the Environmental Theory 2 - 4 , 9 - 11 were also used, which contributed significantly in the preparation of this reflection.
Secondary sources were used as subside for the discussion of the critical analysis made from the primary source. Such sources comprised books and scientific articles found in online databases and sectorial libraries where the study was developed and it appears a base for the adherence to the theme of reflection. In order to analyze this theory, it was used the model of critical analysis based on criteria by Johnson and Webber 8 , when examining the intent, concepts and propositions of the theory and the construction of judgments about the usefulness of it at its practice, demonstrating how the theoretical knowledge is embedded in the nursing practice.
This model is intended to help make judgments about the theoretical value and the use of the theory in order to identify connections between the nursing practice and the theory, assuring the achievement of its own examination 8.
The criteria set forth by the authors 8 to critically analyze a theory are: meaning of the theory; consistency of boundaries; language comprehension; presence of important concepts and definitions; formulation of proposals; variables and hypothesis; theoretical knowledge to explain and predict the phenomenon; influence of theoretical knowledge in the nursing practice.
To facilitate the presentation of some of the criteria, five-point scales were used, proposed by the authors 8 , to their measure along with the contribution of the literature concerning the matter. The criteria mentioned are organized and analyzed in three phases: the first phase - Intention of a theory - comprises the first three criteria presented: meaning, limits and language; the second - Concepts and proposals - refers to the criteria concepts, propositions and variables and hypothesis; the third phase - Utility of the theory in the nursing practice - shows the last two criteria: theoretical knowledge helping to explain and predict the phenomenon and influence the nursing practice 8.
It should be noted that the critical analysis of a theory proposed by these authors is based on a judging process, which determines the utility theory to the practice of nursing. Criterion 1 - The significance of the theory is clear and understandable The first criterion focuses on the significance of the theory and the classification of its clarity and understanding 8.
Therefore, Nightingale advocated essential factors that would ensure the sanitation of dwellings such as clean air, clean water, efficient drainage, cleanliness, lighting, prevention of infection, among others 1. The care in the rehabilitation process of the wounded soldiers in combat or the ones coming from surgeries, during the Crimean War, was the crucial fact that led Nightingale to develop innovative thoughts to the context of care provided to individuals.
Her experience enabled the comprehension about what was effective and what was hindered this process. These ideals are part of the context of the practice experienced by nursing professionals in different areas 2. In her work, Nightingale succinctly stated what she believed to be important in the care of the sick person 5.
The Environmental Theory, with its message of valuing the environment as an essential tool to the healing process of people, highlights the importance of ventilation, heating, sanitary conditions of housing, as for the housing hygiene 1 , 9. Other factors for the patient's care are also presented by Nightingale, such as noise, the varied, nutritive and punctual eating habits.
In addition, the analyzed theory includes information about the appropriate buildings in which patients should be treated in and about the management of hospitals 5.
Johnson and Webber 8 show a form of measurement for this criterion with a five-point scale, which was assigned value 5, indicating that the theory has clear ideas in meaning, given that the reader does not need to have a vocabulary too far-fetched for the full understanding of the work into focus.
Criterion 2 - Limits are consistent with the practice of nursing The second criterion leads to the judgment as to the limits of the theory, if they are consistent for the practice of nursing. Among the limits are included: for whom the nursing care is directed, care scenarios, the role of nurses in the administration of this care and responsibilities of other health professionals 8.
Nightingale's work was written for caregivers at home, with methods and guidelines to improve the health of patients, aiming to support the work of these professionals.
She directed her teachings to women, because they are those who were primarily responsible for family care The main scenario addressed by Nightingale in her theory was the home environment. She taught how to create favorable environments to the recovery of the patient's health at their home and later proposed modifications in the way of building hospitals and manage them Nightingale sparked a revolution in the concept of the nurses back then, specially considering the foundation of nursing as a profession by offering professional training for nurses, which came to be seen as responsible for putting the individual in the best condition to the action of nature, which occurs primarily through the impact on the environment 2.
To Nightingale, caring was minimum among the tasks for which she had been driven to 1. Other health professions were responsible for analyzing situations and making judgments about the patient's health. Therefore, the caregiver, the main subject besides the patient, in this theory, must know how to communicate effectively with these professionals, because upon this relied the efficiency of the care and the patient's welfare Before what has been presented and based on the characterization proposed by Johnson and Webber 7 , it's possible to identify that in order to promote the criterion in of the matter, the theory has a high consistency, and its limits are clearly identified.
Criterion 3 - Understandable language and includes minimum jargon Throughout her work, Nightingale tells true and experienced stories by herself, often demonstrating her opinion about them This format substantially facilitates understanding of the information that the author intends to pass on to their readers. Responding to the third criterion, an understandable language could be verified in all her work, especially in the chapters added to the end of it, where weaving comments on the meaning of being a nurse and behaviors that it must provide assistance in the various types of patients can be found.
The very alphabet of a nurse is to be able to read every change which comes over a the patient's countenance, without causing him the exertion of saying what he feels.
What would many a nurse do otherwise than she does if her patients were a valuable piece of furniture or a sick cow? I do not know. Yet a nurse must be something more than a lift or a broom. A patient is not merely a piece of furniture to be kept clean and ranged against the wall, saved from injury and breakage - though to judge from what many a nurse does and does not do 1 In this, Nightingale shows her hurtful mood, showing a clear language, which was sometimes harsh We are confident that this little book will delight all who read it, for its historicity and actuality, the clear and elegant style, sometimes openly ironic, so well captured by its translator, and the mixture of passion and thought that runs through its pages 11 The jargons - enunciation of unintelligible words, professional slangs 13 - were not identified in her writings as well as new words that could be added to our vocabulary were not displayed.
Criterion 4 - Important concepts are identified and defined According to Johnson and Webber 8 , there are two categories of concepts: those commonly understood and used in most theories can be called common concepts; and those more specific, where not common concepts are used in theory studied.
In the Environmental Theory, the concepts are presented and explained in detail. Nightingale addresses the concepts of health, illness, nursing and environment, as concepts that belong into the first category. For Nightingale, health goes beyond the absence of disease, it is to be well, being able to use well all the powers one has.
A disease is an effort of nature to restore health. Nursing is the way to put the structure of the individual in such a state that there is no disease or that may allow one recover from the disease, ie, the individual must be kept in the best possible conditions for the nature to preserve or restore health, prevent or cure the disease or injury 1 , 5. The concept of environment in this theory is included in both categories of concept, since it is the Environmentalist Theory.
Besides the one about environment, some non-common concepts are presented: aeration, in regard to conserve the environment as pure as the outside ambient air; heating, to provide a moderate temperature in the sick room avoiding its cooling; the sanitary conditions of housing, in relation to ensuring the hygiene of the housing, emphasizing the use of pure water, efficient sewer facilities, cleanness, with reference now to the prevention of infections, and lighting, involving the light and direct sunlight 1 , 9.
Moreover, among the concepts are also presented: the noise, unnecessary noises that are harmful to the patient and cause an expectation in their mind, which undermine and disrupt the need for the patient's home, suck as talks with the caregiver, audible by the individual, the rustling of skirts, agitation, unnecessary questions and the strong stepping while walking 1. The variety is also inserted within these concepts, specifically in the context of changing furniture location, placement of paintings or different portraits and flowers that can be enjoyed by the patient, leading them to diversify their thoughts.
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